IEEE CIG 2012


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Proceedings



These are the temptative proceedings of CIG 2012.

The final ones will be published at IEEE Xplore.

PREFACE

I, on behalf of the organization committee, would like to welcome you all to the 2012 IEEE International Conference on Computational Intelligence and Games (CIG 2012) organized in Granada, Spain. As in past CIG conferences the aim is to bring together researchers and practitioners from academia and industry to discuss recent advances and to explore future directions in computational intelligence and games. Games are becoming a mature field for research and research has found in the Game domain an area heterogeneous enough to prove the results obtained during the investigation process. In particular, this conference is based on the application of computational intelligence (CI) to games and the use of games in the context of computational intelligence which means that practice and theory (in other words, people from academy and industry) meet in this domain.

We (the local organization committee, a combination of researchers from Málaga and Granada Universities) proposed the organization of this conference in Granada, a wonderful city that smells of the pure history of Spain, and accepted the challenge of organizing this event primarily as a honor since this conference represents a reference for the presentation of high quality research concerning the combination of CI and games and, as a consequence, we are extremely proud to bring it to Andalusia, and particularly to Granada, and secondly as a challenge as it is well known that we are immersed in a global worldwide economic crisis, and we wanted to be sure of maintaining the level of interest of the previous events in the series of CIG conferences; Based on the number of submitted papers I can happily say that we have achieved this objective; we have received 113 papers from 38 countries, a number that is very close to the record of submissions for IEEE CIG that was established in the 2010 edition, and that represents the second time in the CIG series that the number of submissions surpasses one hundred by far. In the end we accepted 58 papers (acceptance rate: 51.3%) including seven competition papers and 51 regular papers, for presentation and publication in the proceedings. There were 341 reviews what means that, on average, each paper was reviewed by at least three domain experts.

I want to stress that most of this success is due to the organizing committee. Here I want to personally thank each and every one of the members of this committee. First of all I would like to thank the program chairs Simon Lucas, Sung-Bae Cho and Magy Seif El-Nasr; proceedings chairs, Mike Preuss and Anna I. Esparcia; competition chair Julian Togelius; publicity chair Antonio M. Mora García; social media chair Juan J. Merelo; special sessions and tutorials chair Georgios Yannakakis; finance chair Pedro A. Castillo, and local chairs Carlos Cotta and Raúl Lara-Cabrera. As said, most of the success of the conference is due to this excellent group of colleagues that have made this conference possible. I felt that I was really supported by all of them, and it was an honor for me to work with them; moreover, I really enjoyed the work! What more can I say; just, again, heartfelt thanks to all of them.


This year CIG 2012 includes three keynote speakers, four tutorials from prominent experts, 58 accepted papers for oral presentation, and 9 competitions. Keynote speakers are Jeff Orkin MIT Media Lab, Gillian Smith from Northeastern University, and Michael Bowling from the University of Alberta. Four tutorials are given on the first day of the conference: the first from Mark J. Nelson (the Center for Computer Games Research at the IT University of Copenhagen) on encoding and generating videogame mechanics, the second from Paolo Burelli (the Medialogy Department of the Aalborg University Copenhagen) on evolutionary computation in games (dealing with uncertainty), the third from Kostas Karpouzis (Institute of Communication and Computer Systems in Athens) on affect in games, and the fourth from Simon Lucas and Peter Cowling on the Monte Carlo Tree Search.

In addition, we have 9 exciting competitions including once more the 2K-BotPrize competition, a simulated car racing championship, the StarCraft RTS competition, the physical travelling salesman problem, the Ms Pac-Man vs. ghost competition, the Ms- Pac-man Screen capture competition, and three different competitions based on the Mario AI championship.

I also have to thank our sponsors, especially the IEEE Computational Intelligence Society who is our main sponsor, but I have to mention other institutions/companies that have provided help in the form of infrastructure, personnel, or logo design, just to name some of the support received: in this category I include the University of Granada, the University of Málaga, the Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingenierías Informática y de Telecomunicación (ETSIIT), the Centro de Investigación en Tecnologías de la Información y Comunicaciones de la Universidad de Granada (CITIC-UGR), and CodeKo. I would also like to thank the three speakers for accepting our invitation to keynote, and those colleagues who will share their knowledge in the form of tutorials.

Finally, we just want to say that we hope that you enjoy the conference as much as we have enjoyed organizing it (even though this really required a lot of hard work) and that you enjoy your stay in Granada.

Long live CIG!

Antonio J. Fernández-Leiva

IEEE CIG 2012 General Chair


PROGRAM COMMITTEE

ADDITIONAL REVIEWERS

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Paper Page
Pablo Villacorta, Luis Quesada and David Pelta. Automatic Design of Deterministic Sequences of Decisions for a Repeated Imitation Game with Action-State Dependency 1-8
Garry Greenwood and Phillipa Avery. Update Rules, Reciprocity and Weak Selection in Evolutionary Spatial Games 9-16
Daniel Ashlock and Elizabeth Knowles. Deck-Based Prisoner's Dilemma 17-24
Mark Wittkamp, Luigi Barone, Philip Hingston and Lyndon While. Noise Tolerance for Real-time Evolutionary Learning of Cooperative Predator-Prey Strategies 25-32
Daniel Ashlock, Wendy Ashlock, Spyridon Samothrakis, Simon Lucas and Colin Lee. From Competition to Cooperation: Co-evolution In A Rewards Continuum 33-40
Jacques Basaldúa and J. Marcos Moreno-Vega. Win/Loss States: An efficient model of success rates for simulation-based functions 41-46
Amit Benbassat and Sipper Moshe. Evolving Both Search and Strategy for Reversi Players using Genetic Programming 47-54
Laurentiu Ilici, Jiaojian Wang, Olana Missura and Thomas Gärtner. Dynamic Difficulty for Checkers and Chinese Chess 55-62
Athanasios Papadopoulos, Konstantinos Toumpas, Anthony Chrysopoulos and Pericles A. Mitkas. Exploring Optimization Strategies in Board Game Abalone for Alpha-Beta Search 63-70
Kokolo Ikeda, Daisuke Tomizawa, Simon Viennot and Yuu Tanaka. Playing PuyoPuyo: Two Search Algorithms for Constructing Chain and Tactical Heuristics 71-78
Thomas Philip Runarsson and Simon Lucas. Imitating Play from Game Trajectories: Temporal Difference Learning versus Preference Learning 79-82
Majed Alhajry, Faisal Alvi and Moataz Ahmed. TD(Lambda) and Q-Learning Based Ludo Players 83-90
Martin Wistuba, Lars Schaefers and Marco Platzner. Comparison of Bayesian Move Prediction Systems for Computer Go 91-99
Bulent Tastan, David Chang and Gita Sukthankar. Learning to Intercept Opponents in First Person Shooter Games 100-107
Matteo Botta, Vincenzo Gautieri, Daniele Loiacono and Pier Luca Lanzi. Evolving the Optimal Racing Line in a High-End Racing Game 108-115
Christos Athanasiadis, Damianos Galanopoulos and Anastasios Tefas. Progressive Neural Network Training For The Open Racing Car Simulator 116-123
Casey Rosenthal and Clare Bates Congdon. Personality Profiles for Generating Believable Bot Behaviors 124-131
Michelle McPartland and Marcus Gallagher. Interactively training first person shooter bots 132-138
Christian Bauckhage, Kristian Kersting, Rafet Sifa, Christian Thurau, Anders Drachen and Alessandro Canossa. How Players Lose Interest in Playing a Game: An Empirical Study Based on Distributions of Total Playing Times 139-146
Wei Gong, Ee-Peng Lim, Palakorn Achananuparp, Feida Zhu, David Lo and Freddy Chong Tat Chua. In-Game Action List Segmentation and Labeling in Real-Time Strategy Games 147-154
Marlos C. Machado, Gisele L. Pappa and Luiz Chaimowicz. A Binary Classification Approach for Automatic Preference Modeling of Virtual Agents in Civilization IV 155-162
Anders Drachen, Rafet Sifa, Christian Bauckhage and Christian Thurau. Guns, Swords and Data: Classification of Player Behavior in Computer Games in the Wild 163-170
Tróndur Justinussen, Peter Hald Rasmussen, Alessandro Canossa and Julian Togelius. Resource Systems in Games: An Analytical Approach 171-178
Michele Pirovano, Renato Mainetti, Gabriel Baud-Bovy, Pier Luca Lanzi and Nunzio Alberto Borghese. Self-Adaptive Games for Rehabilitation at Home 179-186
Sylvain Cussat-Blanc, Stephane Sanchez and Yves Duthen. Controlling Cooperative and Conflicting Continuous Actions with a Gene Regulatory Network 187-194
Luis Peña, Jose-Maria Peña, Simon Lucas and Sascha Ossowski. Learning and evolving combat game controllers 195-202
Timothy Davison and Jörg Denzinger. The Huddle: Combining AI Techniques to Coordinate a Player's Game Characters 203-210
Munir Naveed, Diane Kitchin, Andrew Crampton, Lukas Chrpa and Peter Gregory. A Monte-Carlo Path Planner for Dynamic and Partially Observable Environments 211-218
Diego Perez, Philipp Rohlfshagen and Simon Lucas. Monte Carlo Tree Search: Long-term versus Short-term Planning 219-226
Hendrik Baier and Mark H.M. Winands. Beam Monte-Carlo Tree Search 227-233
Edward J. Powley, Daniel Whitehouse and Peter I. Cowling. Monte Carlo Tree Search with macro-actions and heuristic route planning for the Physical Travelling Salesman Problem 234-241
Pierre Perick, David L. St-Pierre, Francis Maes and Damien Ernst. Comparison of Different Selection Strategies in Monte-Carlo Tree Search for the Game of Tron 242-249
Matthias Brandstetter and Samad Ahmadi. Reactive Control of Ms. Pac Man using Information Retrieval based on Genetic Programming 250-256
Johan Svensson and Stefan J. Johansson. Influence Field-based Controllers for Ms PacMan and the Ghosts 257-264
Tom Pepels and Mark H.M. Winands. Enhancements for Monte-Carlo Tree Search in Ms Pac-Man 265-272
David J. Gagne and Clare Bates Congdon. FRIGHT: A Flexible Rule-Based Intelligent Ghost Team for Ms. Pac-Man 273-280
Greg Foderaro, Ashleigh Swingler and Silvia Ferrari. A Model-based Cell Decomposition Approach to Online Pursuit-Evasion Path Planning and the Video Game Ms. Pac-Man 281-287
Marie Gustafsson Friberger and Julian Togelius. Generating Interesting Monopoly Boards from Open Data 288-295
Cameron Browne and Simon Colton. Computational Creativity in a Closed Game System 296-303
Noor Shaker, Miguel Nicolau, Georgios N. Yannakakis, Julian Togelius and Michael O’neill. Evolving Levels for Super Mario Bros Using Grammatical Evolution 304-311
Cameron McGuinness. Statistical Analyses of Representation Choice in Level Generation 312-319
Annika Jordan, Dimitri Scheftelowitsch, Jan Lahni, Jannic Hartwecker, Matthias Kuchem, Mirko Walter-Huber, Nils Vortmeier, Tim Delbruegger, Uemit Gueler, Igor Vatolkin and Mike Preuss. BeatTheBeat Music-Based Procedural Content Generation In a Mobile Game 320-327
Isaac Dart and Mark J. Nelson. Smart Terrain Causality Chains for Adventure-Game Puzzle Generation 328-334
Manuel Kerssemakers, Jeppe Tuxen, Julian Togelius and Georgios N. Yannakakis. A procedural procedural level generator generator 335-341
Samuel Roberts and Simon Lucas. Evolving Spaceship Designs for Optimal Control and the Emergence of Interesting Behaviour 342-349
Miguel Frade, Francisco Fernandez De Vega and Carlos Cotta. Aesthetic Terrain Programs Database for Creativity Assessment 350-354
Anja Johansson and Pierangelo Dell'Acqua. Emotional Behavior Trees 355-362
Reid Swanson, Dustin Escoffery and Arnav Jhala. Learning Visual Composition Preferences from an Annotated Corpus Generated through Gameplay 363-370
Dario Maggiorini, Antonio Nigro, Laura Anna Ripamonti and Marco Trubian. The Perfect Looting System: looking for a Phoenix? 371-378
Wichit Sombat, Philipp Rohlfshagen and Simon Lucas. Evaluating the Enjoyability of the Ghosts in Ms Pac-Man 379-387
Johan Hagelbäck. Potential-Field Based navigation in StarCraft 388-393
Nasri Othman, James Decraene, Wentong Cai, Nan Hu, Malcolm Yoke Hean Low and Alexandre Gouaillard. Simulation-based Optimization of StarCraft Tactical AI through Evolutionary Computation 394-401
Stefan Wender and Ian Watson. Applying Reinforcement Learning to Small Scale Combat in the Real-Time Strategy Game StarCraft:Broodwar 402-408
Gabriel Synnaeve and Pierre Bessière. Special Tactics: a Bayesian Approach to Tactical Decision-making 409-416
Antonio J. Fernández-Ares, Pablo García-Sánchez, Antonio Mora and J.J. Merelo. Adaptive bots for real-time strategy games via map characterization 417-423
Quentin Gemine, Firas Safadi, Raphaël Fonteneau and Damien Ernst. Imitative Learning for Real-Time Strategy Games 424-429
Jason Traish and James Tulip. Towards Adaptive Online RTS AI with NEAT 430-437
Jay Young, Fran Smith, Christopher Atkinson, Ken Poyner and Tom Chothia. SCAIL: An integrated Starcraft AI System 438-445

AUTHORS INDEX

Author Page Paper
A
Achananuparp, Palakorn
147
Ahmadi, Samad
250
Ahmed, Moataz
83
Alhajry, Majed
83
Alvi, Faisal
83
Ashlock, Daniel
17
33
Ashlock, Wendy
33
Athanasiadis, Christos
116
Atkinson, Christopher
438
Avery, Phillipa
9
B
Baier, Hendrik
227
Barone, Luigi
25
Basaldúa, Jacques
41
Bauckhage, Christian
139
163
Baud-Bovy, Gabriel
179
Benbassat, Amit
47
Bessière, Pierre
409
Borghese, Nunzio Alberto
179
Botta, Matteo
108
Brandstetter, Matthias
250
Browne, Cameron
296
C
C. Machado, Marlos
155
Cai, Wentong
394
Canossa, Alessandro
139
171
Chaimowicz, Luiz
155
Chang, David
100
Chothia, Tom
438
Chrpa, Lukas
211
Chrysopoulos, Anthony
63
Chua, Freddy Chong Tat
147
Colton, Simon
296
Congdon, Clare Bates
124
273
Cotta, Carlos
350
Cowling, Peter I.
234
Crampton, Andrew
211
Cussat-Blanc, Sylvain
187
D
Dart, Isaac
328
Davison, Timothy
203
Decraene, James
394
Delbruegger, Tim
320
Dell'Acqua, Pierangelo
355
Denzinger, Jörg
203
Drachen, Anders
139
163
Duthen, Yves
187
E
Ernst, Damien
242
424
Escoffery, Dustin
363
F
Fernandez De Vega, Francisco
350
Fernández-Ares, Antonio J.
417
Ferrari, Silvia
281
Foderaro, Greg
281
Fonteneau, Raphaël
424
Frade, Miguel
350
G
Gagne, David J.
273
Galanopoulos, Damianos
116
Gallagher, Marcus
132
García-Sánchez, Pablo
417
Gautieri, Vincenzo
108
Gemine, Quentin
424
Gong, Wei
147
Gouaillard, Alexandre
394
Greenwood, Garry
9
Gregory, Peter
211
Gueler, Uemit
320
Gustafsson Friberger, Marie
288
Gärtner, Thomas
55
H
Hagelbäck, Johan
388
Hartwecker, Jannic
320
Hingston, Philip
25
Hu, Nan
394
I
Ikeda, Kokolo
71
Ilici, Laurentiu
55
J
Jhala, Arnav
363
Johansson, Anja
355
Johansson, Stefan J.
257
Jordan, Annika
320
Justinussen, Tróndur
171
K
Kerssemakers, Manuel
335
Kersting, Kristian
139
Kitchin, Diane
211
Knowles, Elizabeth
17
Kuchem, Matthias
320
L
L. Pappa, Gisele
155
L. St-Pierre, David
242
Lahni, Jan
320
Lanzi, Pier Luca
108
179
Lee, Colin
33
Lim, Ee-Peng
147
Lo, David
147
Loiacono, Daniele
108
Low, Malcolm Yoke Hean
394
Lucas, Simon
33
79
195
219
342
379
M
Maes, Francis
242
Maggiorini, Dario
371
Mainetti, Renato
179
McGuinness, Cameron
312
McPartland, Michelle
132
Merelo, J.J.
417
Missura, Olana
55
Mitkas, Pericles A.
63
Mora, Antonio
417
Moreno-Vega, J. Marcos
41
Moshe, Sipper
47
N
Naveed, Munir
211
Nelson, Mark J.
328
Nicolau, Miguel
304
Nigro, Antonio
371
O
Ossowski, Sascha
195
Othman, Nasri
394
O’neill, Michael
304
P
Papadopoulos, Athanasios
63
Pelta, David
1
Pepels, Tom
265
Perez, Diego
219
Perick, Pierre
242
Peña, Jose-Maria
195
Peña, Luis
195
Pirovano, Michele
179
Platzner, Marco
91
Powley, Edward J.
234
Poyner, Ken
438
Preuss, Mike
320
Q
Quesada, Luis
1
R
Rasmussen, Peter Hald
171
Ripamonti, Laura Anna
371
Roberts, Samuel
342
Rohlfshagen, Philipp
219
379
Rosenthal, Casey
124
Runarsson, Thomas Philip
79
S
Safadi, Firas
424
Samothrakis, Spyridon
33
Sanchez, Stephane
187
Schaefers, Lars
91
Scheftelowitsch, Dimitri
320
Shaker, Noor
304
Sifa, Rafet
139
163
Smith, Fran
438
Sombat, Wichit
379
Sukthankar, Gita
100
Svensson, Johan
257
Swanson, Reid
363
Swingler, Ashleigh
281
Synnaeve, Gabriel
409
T
Tanaka, Yuu
71
Tastan, Bulent
100
Tefas, Anastasios
116
Thurau, Christian
139
163
Togelius, Julian
171
288
304
335
Tomizawa, Daisuke
71
Toumpas, Konstantinos
63
Traish, Jason
430
Trubian, Marco
371
Tulip, James
430
Tuxen, Jeppe
335
V
Vatolkin, Igor
320
Viennot, Simon
71
Villacorta, Pablo
1
Vortmeier, Nils
320
W
Walter-Huber, Mirko
320
Wang, Jiaojian
55
Watson, Ian
402
Wender, Stefan
402
While, Lyndon
25
Whitehouse, Daniel
234
Winands, Mark H.M.
227
265
Wistuba, Martin
91
Wittkamp, Mark
25
Y
Yannakakis, Georgios N.
304
335
Young, Jay
438
Z
Zhu, Feida
147








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